Drugs and vaccines are important tools in combating diseases worldwide, but may also cause adverse events, with severity depending upon patient- and product-specific factors. This reality is even more important in developing countries where most medications can be purchased over the counter, including those with a high incidence of side effects or adverse reactions. When coupled with a greater propensity towards self-medication, this may have serious consequences for public health in developing countries.
National data on self-medication are not available in Pakistan, but local studies reveal that this may vary between 6.3% and 51.3% depending on the setting. However, self-medication with appropriate guidance can also be beneficial, keeping in mind the limited resources and health facilities available in developing countries. In this context the role of pharmacies has broadened, incorporating not only dispensing, but also health education, and sometimes even diagnosis. In the developing world, drug sellers operating in the informal sector are often the first source of health care, especially in settings where self-medication is the norm. Reasons cited by patients include expediency, convenience, efficacy of medicines, dependability of supply, and cost reduction. This has important implications for the role of drug sellers, more so for those with no qualifications in pharmacy. Unfortunately many drug sellers tend to recommend medicines with lucrative profit margins without sufficient concern for the appropriateness (indications, efficacy, and safety) of the drug. A preliminary study conducted in Pakistan reported that many drug sellers have minimal formal education and little or no professional training; of those with training, most were absent from pharmacies, a practice also observed in other developing countries. Given the limited knowledge of sellers regarding indications, contraindications, and side effects, their dispensing practices may have undesired effects. Although there is a network of health services in Pakistan’s public sector, and a plethora of private sector initiatives, 45% of the population still lacks access to health services. The physician: population ratio is 57 per 100 000 people as compared with 85 in Iran or 311 in developed countries like Sweden. To meet health needs and to reduce personal costs, people rely on alternative health care systems such as chemists, traditional medicine practitioners, faith healers, and homeopaths. Large gaps in the formal health sector encourage self-medication; hence the knowledge and practices of drug sellers becomes critically important in Pakistan. There are an estimated 45 000-50 000 retail and wholesale drug outlets in Pakistan (population 145 million). However, only about 800 individuals per annum graduate as Bachelors of Pharmacy, which translates to very few qualified personnel available to staff these outlets. A majority of drug stores, therefore, have persons with little or no professional training. The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has established preconditions for issuing a pharmacy license.
The drug laws of Pakistan require that:
- Pharmacy premises should have proper and adequate facilities for drug storage including refrigeration.
- Premises be clean and in a hygienic and tidy condition.
- Drug sales should be under continuous personal supervision of a pharmacist (Pharmacy Act, 1967). Given that Pakistan has insufficient data on the operation of pharmacies, this study was undertaken to estimate the proportion of Rawalpindi pharmacies meeting GOP licensing requirements, and to identify factors associated with meeting these requirements.
Bahria Foundation is figuring out to improve productivity, and it is key to free these “star personnel” from routine tasks. How does this apply to retail pharmacy? Deploying these talented difference makers to creative, innovative roles is one way to improve productivity. I envision using these employees to help expand pharmacy as a cost-effective solution in the broader healthcare arena. Implementing collaborative practice agreements (where state laws permit) and to work with local Accountable Care hospital like PNS Shifa and other reputable organization to help improve the use of prescription drugs are a few cutting-edge ideas to expand pharmacy’s role in healthcare.
1st October 2018, marks another historic day for the Bahria Foundation, as we have completely overhauled its working structure in terms of Human Resource. Top management gave special emphasis to this very important aspect for development of our organization in this ever changing environment where organizations are fast adopting new trends and innovations in terms of their working style. Our new schema of four pillars has covered all sorts of values and traditions that Bahria Foundations has always stood for.
Maritime Works Organizations MWO is the most important pillar where a lot needs to be done, because this sector as a whole is the most neglected one in our country and if we work and utilize our full potential we can bring a lot of business, jobs and services. There are a lot of opportunities which are still untapped and using our experience back in the navy and with the help of our young professionals, this single most sector can contribute largest share towards national economy and we can fulfill our dream of blue economy.
Bahria Education And Training Services is an important part of Bahria Foundation. It has embarked trademark in education field and it has contributed in various areas in Pakistan. It has more than 86 colleges all over Pakistan, and we stick to our core values to provide quality education and build successful future of our children.
Third pillar where Bahria Foundation generates most of its revenues and employs largest number of personnel is Commercial Businesses, where Bahria Foundation has proved its credibility and trust in the business community of Karachi Metropolis and that’s where originates basis of our new logo Trusted Partner. This pillar has largest area of operation and with our committed team our target is to extend our footprint in all parts of the country in order to provide more jobs and services to our fellow countrymen.
Fourth pillar in this new scheme of restructuring is Bahria Estates, which is largest source of marketing and credibility in terms of our four Bahria Complexes which are standing testament of our commitment towards quality of services. Bahria Foundation aims to continue to render its best services to all its clients with our round the clock efforts, teamwork and our core values.
Core values are what support the vision, shape the culture and reflect what a company values. They are the essence of the company’s identity – the principles, beliefs or philosophy of values. Core values educate clients and potential customers about what the company is about and clarify the identity of the company.
Top management of Bahria Foundation believes on defining and using core values as an agent of positive organizational change. We believe on using ways in which progress in adherence to stated core values can be measured and utilized for continuous improvement, positive climate, and job satisfaction.
Core Values of Bahria Foundation after Restructuring
More Improved Organizational Culture Using Core Values
The core values at Bahria Foundation are as follows:
Value integrity and live it by speaking the truth with respect and do the right thing, even if nobody is watching.
Conducting business in an honest and professional manner.
Taking full responsibility for our actions and being fully accountable to customers.
Value for money:
Providing high quality product and service that adds significant value to customers’ businesses.
Customer satisfaction is a primary objective and guiding principle.
Core values educate clients and potential customers about what the company is about and clarify the identity of the company. Especially in this competitive world, having a set of specific core values that speak to the public is definitely a competitive advantage. Contributing to society and demonstrating corporate social responsibility whereas respecting the diversity and giving the best of composition.
Boat building is regarded as the design as well as construction of boats along with their systems. When involved in boat building, other industries also benefit from this. This industry is revenue generating one, but is still under negligence in countries like Pakistan.
Boat building is something that can help the economy out. Boats are used for many purposes. This is for exports and imports and helps a country much. If a country is involved in building boats by themselves, they will not need to buy these from another country. When products need to be safely transported, this can occur in well-built boats. In this way a boat can help in generating revenue for a country. This occurs with the help of boats. If boats are being constructed in a country, these can be used for fishing purposes. If a country does not focus on boat building, they will want to buy boats from another country. This helps the country earn revenue when selling these. So, the country can export boats and get much money from doing this. Boats are used for transportation as well. Some people prefer to travel across the ocean in a boat rather than in an airplane. Special boats can be constructed that are for recreational needs.
Wood is regarded as the traditional boat building material employed for hull as well as spar construction. If a country is involved in boat building, the wood industry also benefits. Boats are required when there is some crisis or accident in water. To help in rescuing, boats are used. Boats can be designed that are for this particular task. Boats are needed in the military field as well. If a country does not focus on this field then they will have to spend money buying boats from other countries. Different kinds of boats can be developed for different activities, according to the activity. If employment opportunities are increased in a country, this helps in generating revenue.
The metal industry including iron and steel also benefit from boat construction. All these industries will get revenue from boat building. The above are industries that benefit from boat building.
Even though boat building is not given its needed importance, Bahria Foundation has a Bahria Maritime Service division that is involved in this activity. The Maritime Division of Bahria Foundation has a Boat Building Yard or BBY. They have a prefabricated type of shed for different types of boat construction connected works. BBY specializes within GRP boat design, construction, maintenance, as well as repair. The Bahria Boat Building Yard even has sufficient infrastructure along with experienced staff trained from the PN Dockyard, Shipyard plus abroad. Bahria Foundation understands the importance of boat building and how it can help in generating revenue for the country. Many areas can benefit from boat building projects. Countries like Pakistan have the resources and port to expand this industry, but it is under negligence. It is important to give boat building importance and advance this field.